Modelling the Influences of the Characteristics of Freight Transport on the Value of Time and the Mode Choice
JIANG F and CALZADA C, Ministry of Transport, France
This research paper is part of a joint reflection amongst several partners, including the Economic and Statistical Service of the Ministry of Transportation, the ENPC 1 and the INRETS 2, the principal objective of which is an analysis of the desegregated
This research paper is part of a joint reflection amongst several partners, including the Economic and Statistical Service of the Ministry of Transportation, the ENPC 1 and the INRETS 2, the principal objective of which is an analysis of the desegregated mode choice for the transport of commodities in an effort to overcome the present deficiencies in the socioeconomic evaluation of infrastructure projects relative to the transport of commodities.
The French situation is characterized by an ever increasing predominance of road transport as others developed country. But rail transport having been considered more attractive for the community, so the government has in the past adopted policies which restricted road transport (application of quotas, obligatory tariffs, etc.) in an effort to slow the growth in market share of this particular mode amongst the other modes.
Despite these new Constraints, the growth of road transport has not slowed. An awareness of the perverse effects that could result from such policies (absence of price competition, encouragement of less economic transport on one's own behalf...) finally led policy makers to acknowledge their mistake and to modify their policies. A procedure for the deregulation of transports was then implemented in order to provide better control of market mechanisms. This does not imply the abandon of all State intervention, since a progressive awareness of the negative, external effects of such an activity should in the future compel public authorities to undertake actions in order to reduce the importance of such effects.
A significant trend is that future choices for transport solutions (modes, infrastructures) will be influenced to a greater degree by the various types of markets and by demands for quality logistics, even though the choice of mode may be limited by availability and by a limited distribution of transport infrastructures. In fact, the transport chain is becoming more and more complex, and transport networks are undergoing a transformation away from mere point-to-point contacts and towards denser logistical networks. The consequences of logistical changes not only have an impact on the relationships between partners, but also on regional planning policies and on the choices made with regard to the development of transport infrastructures.
Another problem for the transportation planning is, at present, there is only a single value for socioeconomic (average) time in France, referred to as tutelary. This value, which has been fixed at 195 francs (1994) per heavy truck x hour earned, does not take into account the intrinsic value of the commodities being transported and the characteristics of transport demand.
Thus, in order to manage mode choices and to implement the planning of transport infrastructures, it is necessary beforehand to identify the logistical factors which influence the mode choice and to understand the way in which these factors influence the choices, and then to analyze their effects on shipper's Value Of Time (VOT).
Association for European Transport