FATIMA: (financial Assistance for Transport Integration in Metropolitan Areas): Study Method and Results
TIMMS P M, MAY A D, SHEPHERD S P and MARLER N W, University of Leeds, UK, TOFFOLO S, Trasporto S.P.A., Italy
Two papers at the I997 European Transport Conference (Shepherd et al, May et al) described the method and results of the project OPTIMA, which sought to find optimum transport policies, in terms of economic efficiency and sustainability, for nine European
Two papers at the I997 European Transport Conference (Shepherd et al, May et al) described the method and results of the project OPTIMA, which sought to find optimum transport policies, in terms of economic efficiency and sustainability, for nine European cities: Edinburgh, Merseyside, Vienna, Eisenstadt, Trornse, Oslo, Helsinki, Torino and Salerno. These optimal policies were found by rnaximising, in each city case study, two objective functions which were intended to encapsulate policy-makers' objectives: the Economic Efficiency Objective Function (EEF) and the Sustainability Objective Function (SOF). The transport measures considered in this optirnisation process were: public transport infrastructure; low cost changes in road network capacity; public transport frequency levels; fares; parking charges; and road pricing.
An important part of the OPTIMA project was to make an assessment of the results using interviews with city officials in the nine cities concerned. Whilst the response of the city officials was generaNy favourable to both the rnethod and the results, doubt was frequently expressed as to whether some of the optimum policies, particularly the sustainability optima, were affordable.
The prime motivation of the EU-funded follow-up project FATIMA has been to examine optimum transport policies in the context of tight controls on public spending. An important aspect of this work is to exainine whether private finance can be used to loosen the spending constraints on transport provision. It has thus considered five funding regimes: unconstrained public funding; constrained public funding; the use of value capture: regulated use of private finance (in which the public authorities determine policies); and unregulated use of private finance (in which private companies determine policies).
New objective functions were created in order to reflect the different circumstances of tbese funding I'egimes. Apart fi'om the public spending isstle, other changes were made to the OPTIMA objective functions in order to reflect various concerns of city authorities:
* they would prefer environmental and safety issues to have been given higher prominence, especially in the Economic Efficiency Objective Function;
* they considered it debatable whether low cost traffic management measures, even including advanced telematics measures, could achieve a 20% increase in road capacity (the maximum level assumed for OPTIMA). There was therefore a worry that the suggestion of such an increase could be interpreted as involving road-building in residential areas. This was not intended by the research team, and in order to avoid any rnisinterpretation in FATIMA it was agreed that the measure "road capacity increase" should be limited to a 10% maximum;
* there was a large degree of scepticism about the maximum levels of the charging measures (parking charges and road pricing) being tested. In order not to obtain "optimal" policies that are seen as unrealistic the following maximum levels have been changed in FATIMA: road pricing frorn I0 ecus to 5 ecus (per trip); and parking charges from a 500% increase to a 300% increase in real terms;
* the Merseyside case study in OPTIMA distinguished between peak and off-peak public transport frequency and between long stay and short stay parking charges. Since higher values of the objective functions could be found by making this distinction, and since real life policies often do differ between the peak and off-peak, FATIMA distinguishes where possible between peal< and off-peak for fares, public transport frequency and road pricing, mad between short and long stay parking.
The remainder of this paper is organised as follows. Section 2 outlines current experience with the use of private finance. Section 3 defines the new objective functions created for FATIMA. Section 4 presents the results from optimising these objective functions.
Section 5 makes some conlments about the provisional feedback from city authorities, whilst Section 6 gives overall conclusions
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