Urban Development Patterns and Their Relationships with Travel Behaviour
FLOREZ J, Universidad Sim6n Bolivar, Venezuela
Since World War II urban development in most cities of the industrialised countries has tended towards activity clustering. Suburban development shows segregated land use responding to plans based on zoning and on strict regulations. The segregation betwe
Since World War II urban development in most cities of the industrialised countries has tended towards activity clustering. Suburban development shows segregated land use responding to plans based on zoning and on strict regulations. The segregation between residential and other activities is very noticeable. This urban pattern has often been linked to higher car use and increasing environmental and social costs. The phenomenon is not exclusive of the wealthier countries, though, and it can also be observed in many cities of Latin America, where the spatial segregation includes an additional (or a more marked) clustering of population by income. There are very few studies analysing the relation between urban development and travel behaviour in Latin American cities, but available data suggest that commuting travel times, mostly based on public transport means, are extremely high. The Neo-Traditional Neighbourhood Design (NTND) was proposed around 1980 as an alternative to conventional land use planning. NTND basically proposes to reorient development towards traditional communities (i.e. those existing before World War II in industrialised countries) that are usually characterised by mixed land uses and a highly interconnected street system (Friedman et al., 1994).
The aim of this paper is to analyse the relation between residential development patterns and travel behaviour and the corresponding satisfaction level of households, for the two kinds of approaches to urban planning. The case of Caracas, where a specific survey has been carried out, will be used to illustrate the analysis. While there is no proper NTND development in Caracas -in fact, there are very few examples in other countries; the city offers the possibility to compare traditional neighbourhoods with clustered ones. The selected neighbourhoods have been classified taking into account the street network pattern and the presence of mixed-uses. In order to eliminate possible social biases, all the neighbourhoods analysed are basically middle income. Nevertheless, the data from the random sample of households include socio- economic and demographic characteristics, such as car ownership and situation in the family cycle. The data has also allowed distinguishing between the different kinds of home-based trips made by similar households in the two types of areas. A further product of the research has involved the correlation between the different urban (and mobility) patterns and the satisfaction levels of residents.
The paper is divided in four sections: the first one explains the aims and bases of NTND, and describes the stages of development of residential urban areas; the second section presents the methodology used; the third describes the urban context of Caracas and the neighbourhoods that are studied; and the forth one analyses the data. Finally some conclusions are drawn.
Association for European Transport