Strategies and Tools for Speed Management on European Roads
KALLBERG V-P, VTT, Finland, WARD H, ALLSOP R, University College London, UK, HORST R van der, TNO Human Factors Research Institute, The Netherlands and VARHELYI A, Lund University, Sweden
The rapid door-to-door journey times made possible by motor vehicles and the road system are one of the great benefits conferred by modem transport. But the levels of speed that make possible these journey-times also have effects in terms of operating cos
The rapid door-to-door journey times made possible by motor vehicles and the road system are one of the great benefits conferred by modem transport. But the levels of speed that make possible these journey-times also have effects in terms of operating costs, noise, exhaust emissions and the occurrence of traffic accidents and consequent death, injury and material damage. Where motor traflic shares the road with vulnerable road users or travels close to peopleÕs homes, issues of acceptability of levels of speed to vulnerable road users and to residents arise. Nor are current levels of speed necessarily acceptable to all of the drivers who participate in them.
The aim of the European project MASTER (MAnaging Speeds of Traffic on European Roads) is to produce information that can be cited in the preparation of national and EU decisions concerning speed management and standards for speed control equipment. For this purpose, the project seeks answers to three key questions:
1) What are acceptable ranges of speeds?
2) What are the key factors influencing driversÕ choice of speed?
3) What are the best speed management tools and strategies?
Each of three research areas addresses one of these questions. Area 1 is concerned with developing a basis for appraisal of effects of different levels of speed upon accident occurrence, emissions, noise, vehicle operating costs and travel time. Area 2 provides information on factors that influence drivers speed behaviour with respect to present speed levels and speed management methods in Europe, enforcement levels, motivation and acceptability of driving speeds, and road design and subjective road categorisation. Area 3 reviews various tools for speed management, tests the most promising ones and gives recommendations for implementation of Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT) systems. The summary reports from these three work areas provide the main inputs to this paper, which is concerned with making recommendations for speed management strategies and policies. The full results of the project are documented in 26 reports which are listed in the reference section of this paper. These can be viewed in full and downloaded from the MASTER website, http:/www.vtt.fi/yki/yki6.
Association for European Transport